Generally, we have found that at most institutions failing grades, such as F or E, are calculated into the students' grade point average and are equivalent to zero grade/quality points; and Incomplete or Withdraw grades, such as I or W, are not incorporated into the GPA calculation. In these cases, students with failing grades should be included in your placement validity study, while students with Incomplete or Withdraw grades can be included in your file but will not be included in the placement validity analyses. When you are completing your grade mapping table you will note that grades such as W or I have “No Value” and will therefore not be analyzed in the study, while grades such as F or E are equivalent to a grade of 0.
These are only given as general guidelines. If you have a large number of students who failed the course you wish to study for any reason other than doing poorly on the tests and/or class work (such as, dropping the class or leaving the school without officially withdrawing), or if your Incomplete or Withdraw grades are calculated into the GPA, please contact the ACES staff to discuss your specific situation.